Sabtu, 11 September 2010

Humans could face new threat from sharks

Humans could face new threat from sharks

Humans could face new threat from sharks
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Copyright © Albert Kok, Creative Commons

Humans now have one more thing to fear from sharks other than sharp
teeth - antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

In a study published in a recent issue of the Journal of Zoo and
Wildlife Medicine, Jason Blackburn and coauthors have identified
antibiotic-resistant bacteria in seven species of shark and redfish
(Sciaenops ocellatus) collected from six sample sites in the western
Atlantic.

The authors obtained 134 viable bacterial samples from cloacal swabs of
the fishes collected and tested these for resistance to 13 different
antibiotics.

In all cases, they found resistance to one or more antibiotics, with
sharks off Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts and in offshore Louisiana
having bacteria that were resistant to the fewest antibiotics, while
those from the Florida Keys and Belize harboured bacteria that were
resistant to amikacin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin,
doxycycline, penicillin, piperacillin, sulfamethoxazole and ticarcillin.

*Human link*
Although random mutations cannot be ruled out as the source of this
multi-drug resistance, evidence points to a human origin.

The sharks from Belize, for instance, are found in an area of high
tourist traffic and in the vicinity of a sewage treatment plant.

This makes it likely that the bacteria are developing resistance from
exposure to higher ambient levels of antibiotics from anthropogenic
sources, or that resistant bacteria already present in sewage is
colonizing the sharks.

Although it appears that the resistant bacteria in sharks and predatory
fish do not appear to have any adverse effects on humans or other fish,
the authors assert that the threat cannot be taken lightly.

*Reservoirs for drug resistance*
According to the authors, "The marine environment may be considered a
reservoir for resistance to such drugs, and future surveillance of
predatory fishes should continue.

"The marine predatory fishes sampled in this study may serve as valuable
sentinels, because they are long lived and slow growing and, therefore,
have a potentially long exposure to resistant bacteria in the ocean.

"In addition, these data support the hypothesis of previous work that
resistance is present in marine species from multiple food webs and
habitats. Because fisheries remain an important component of the human
diet, this information may be used to determine zoonotic health risks."

For more information, see the paper: Blackburn, JK, MA Mitchell, M-C
Holley Blackburn, A Curtis and BA Thompson (2010) Evidence of antibiotic
resistance in free-swimming, top-level marine predatory fishes. Journal
of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 41, pp. 7--16.

*Published:* Dr Heok Hee Ng
<browse.php?type=author&q=Dr+Heok+Hee+Ng> Thursday 19 August 2010, 4:00 pm

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