Kamis, 16 September 2010

Hampala salweenensis

*/Hampala salweenensis/*

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*Family*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#1>
*Distribution*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#2>
*Habitat*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#3>
*Max Length*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#4>
*Minimum Tank Size*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#5>
*Tank Setup*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#6>
*Temperature*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#7>

*pH Range*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#8>
*Hardness*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#9>
*Diet*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#10>
*Compatibility*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#11>
*Sexual Dimorphism*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#12>
*Breeding*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#13>
*Notes*
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#14>


<I>Hampala salweenensis</I>.
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/images/Hampala%20salweensis.jpg>
/Hampala salweenensis/.
© Nonn Panitvong


*Family*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


Cyprinidae


*Distribution*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


Endemic to the River Salween basin although the full extent of its
distribution is unclear. The type specimens were collected from a
tributary of the Mae Pai river in Mae Hong Son Province, western
Thailand. The Mae Pai is itself a tributary of the Salween that joins
the main river channel in the border state of Kayah, Myanmar. It has
also been recorded from the Nam Pang river, another tributary of the
Salween located much further north in Shan State, Myanmar.


*Habitat*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


It is predominantly a riverine fish preferring clear, well-oxygenated,
running water with substrates of sand, gravel, rock or mud although it
is clearly adaptable as it can be found in both upland and lowland waters.


*Maximum Standard Length*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


The largest officially-recorded specimen measured 8.1"/20.6cm but we
suspect it may grow a little larger.


*Minimum Tank Size*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


An aquarium measuring 96" x 24" x 24"/240cm x 60cm x 60cm/906 litres
should be the smallest considered to house a group of adults.


*Tank Setup*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


Choice of decor is not likely to be as critical as water quality and the
amount of open swimming-space provided; we've seen very healthy-looking
specimens of the closely-related H. dispar
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=dispar&id=1267>
being
maintained in completely bare set-ups for example. However should you
possess the means to both provide and decorate a sufficiently-sized tank
for long term care this species would look superb in a set-up designed
to resemble a fast-flowing river with a substrate of variably-sized
rocks and gravel, some large water-worn boulders and perhaps a couple of
driftwood branches. A giant rivertank manifold could even be constructed
to provide naturalistic unidirectional flow.

Like many other species that hail from running waters it is almost
certain to react poorly to any accumulation of organic wastes and
spotless water will be required in order for it to thrive. There should
also be a high level of dissolved oxygen and a decent amount of water
movement in the tank. Even if a rivertank manifold is installed an
enormous external-style filter or two are going to be needed in order to
provide the desired levels of oxygen, flow and surface area for
bacterial colonisation. Be sure to fit the tank with a heavy,
tightly-fitting cover as /Hampala/ species can be quite skittish at
times and possess a powerful leap.


*Temperature*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


71 - 77°F/22 - 25°C


*pH Range*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


6.0 - 8.0


*Hardness*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


5 - 20°H


*Diet*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


Stomach analyses of H. dispar
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=dispar&id=1267>
from
Cambodia have shown it to feed chiefly on crabs, shrimp and insects with
some smaller fish also being taken. Members of the genus have very large
mouths and should be considered highly piscivorous. In the aquarium they
will accept dried foods but should not be fed this kind of diet
exclusively; daily meals of live and frozen foods are the key to keeping
them in the best of health. Smaller specimens can be offered bloodworm,
small earthworms, chopped prawn and suchlike while adults will take
whole prawns, larger earthworms, mussels, whitebait, etc. Take care not
to overfeed as these fish will gorge themselves given the opportunity.

These species should not be fed large amounts of mammalian/avian meat
such as beef heart or chicken. Some of the lipids contained in these
meats cannot be properly metabolised by the fish and can cause excess
deposits of fat and even organ degeneration. Similarly there is no
benefit in the use of 'feeder' fish such as livebearers or small
goldfish which carry with them associated risks such as the introduction
of parasites or disease.

/Hampala/ in general are voracious feeders especially when maintained in
numbers. Some keepers have observed that the 'alpha' i.e. dominant fish
in a group will lead the other individuals in a pack-style feeding
frenzy, and many anglers' reports state that the water surface will
literally boil when a shoal is feeding. So enthusiastically do they
attack food that they are sometimes recommended as useful tankmates for
fastidious or newly-introduced fish that are refusing to eat.


*Compatibility*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


As these fish capture their prey using suction rather than aggressively
biting they are surprisingly peaceful with anything that cannot be
swallowed although their speed of movement and rapacious feeding habits
mean that slow-moving or shy tankmates will simply be outcompeted.
Smaller specimens are easy to maintain alongside many other species but
as they grow become increasingly powerful and domineering at meal times.
This can lead to a situation where the other fish in the tank are unable
to feed so companions must be chosen with care. Similarly-sized
cyprinids, characins, catfish and perhaps large clown loach are probably
the best choices. A Salween-themed community could be an interesting
project but would require a truly enormous aquarium plus most of the
suitable options such as the various
native /Neolissochilus/ and /Poropuntius/ species are rarely, if ever,
imported for the aquarium hobby.

Although /Hampala/ are gregarious by nature they are shoaling rather
than schooling species which develop a distinct pecking order and
therefore should always be maintained in a group of five or more. If
only two or three are purchased the subdominant fish may be bullied
incessantly whereas solitary specimens can act somewhat nervously.


*Sexual Dimorphism*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


Sexually mature females are likely to be thicker-bodied than males.


*Breeding*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


As far as we know it has not been bred in captivity.


*Notes*

<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=salweenensis+&id=1320#top>


This species is almost unheard of in aquarium literature and may not yet
have been exported for the trade. This is a shame as its relatively
small adult size is likely to make it a far more suitable aquarium
resident than the commonly offered H. macrolepidota
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=macrolepidota&id=962>
and
it is a supremely handsome fish.

The genus currently contains seven species of which H. macrolepidota
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=macrolepidota&id=962>
and,
to a lesser extent, H. dispar
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=dispar&id=1267>are
the only ones seen with any regularity in the aquatic trade. As well as
being the most widely-distributed H. macrolepidota
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=macrolepidota&id=962>
is
also the largest-growing of the group. All representatives can appear
superficially similar at first glance, the exception being /H.
lopezi/ which is endemic to a single island in The Phillipines and is
unique in that it displays a lateral band-like marking on the flanks. H.
macrolepidota
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=macrolepidota&id=962>
is
also easy to identify from the others by its combination of a dark
vertical band running downwards from the anterior of the dorsal fin to
below the lateral line and black marginal striping in both lobes of the
caudal fin. H. dispar
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=dispar&id=1267>
exhibits
only a single dark blotch-like marking on the body and also has marginal
stripes on the caudal lobes but they are less well-defined than in H.
macrolepidota
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=macrolepidota&id=962>.
Juveniles of these two can appear very similar indeed as the body blotch
is extended vertically in young H. dispar
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=dispar&id=1267>
and
both species display a broadish dark band across the caudal peduncle, a
second, thinner band across the base of the caudal fin and a small
blotch above the anal fin. However these markings are much less intense
in H. dispar
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=dispar&id=1267>
and
in H. macrolepidota
<http://www.seriouslyfish.com/profile.php?genus=Hampala&species=macrolepidota&id=962>
there
is additional dark patterning above and below the eye and running
downwards from the nape to the pelvic fins.

/H. sabana/ also has a single body marking but a higher count of
circumpeduncular scales (30-32) and very few lateral line scales (12-15)
compared to its congeners. /H. ampalong/, /H. bimaculata/ and /H.
salweenensis/ can be a little trickier to separate as they all have two
body blotches. However /H. ampalong/ possesses more lateral-line scales
than /H. salweenensis/ (28-31 vs. 26-27; the two also differ in other
meristic counts but this is the easiest method of differentiation)
whereas in /H. bimaculata/ the body markings are saddle-shaped and the
anterior blotch is positioned underneath the posterior half of the
dorsal fin (it is situated below the dorsal fin origin in the other
two). One further point of note is that the body markings tend to fade
in very large specimens of all/Hampala/. It is possible that additional
species will be described in the future as a phylogenetic study
published in 2006 concluded that the form of /H. bimaculata/ from
central and southern parts of the Malaysian state of Sarawak, Borneo
ought to be considered a distinct species.


Literature cited

1. Doi, A. and Y. Taki. 1994. - Jpn. J. Ichthyol. 40: 405--412.
A new cyprinid fish, /Hampala salweenensis/, from the Mae Pai
River system, Salween Basin, Thailand.
2. J.R. Ryan and Y. B. Esa. 2006 - Zoolog. Sci. 23(10): 893-901.
Phylogenetic Analysis of /Hampala/ Fishes (Subfamily Cyprininae)
in Malaysia Inferred from Partial Mitochondrial Cytochrome b DNA
Sequences.
3. Y. Taki and A. Kawamoto. 1977 - J. Journ. Icthyology 24(1).
Differentiation of the Cyprinids, /Hampala macrolepidota/ and /H.
dispar/.

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